DRIVER+ Terminology

Mutual understanding of practitioners and other key actors involved in international crisis and disaster management turned to be a key challenge. Barriers to understanding due to different cultural, organisational and educational background were identified to be main challenges of communication and information exchange of several activities such as border crossing cooperation. In this light, DRIVER+ decided to establish an English project terminology of key terms and associated definitions in order to enhance a common understanding within the project team and to contribute to a shared understanding within Europe.

The rationale behind this terminology can be found at the bottom of the page.

Affiliated volunteer

Individual who is affiliated with an existing incident response organization or voluntary organization but who, without extensive preplanning, offers support to the response to, and recovery from, an incident.

Source: derived from ISO 22319:2017(en) Security and resilience — Community resilience — Guidelines for planning the involvement of spontaneous volunteers 3.1

Best Practice

This encompasses the preferred actions in a specific type of situation to efficiently and effectively achieve a certain objective. Best Practice may be formalised in internal policy documents such as handbooks and standard operation procedures and could be based on one or several Lesson Identified/Lessons Learned approved by decision-makers.

Source: Initial DRIVER+ definition

Capability

The means to accomplish one or more tasks under specific conditions.

Source: Project Responder 5

Civil Society

The process by which people, organisations and society systematically stimulate and develop their capacities over time to achieve social and economic goals, including through improvement of knowledge, skills, systems, and institutions.

Source: UNISDR (2009)

Command & Control

Activities of target oriented decision-making, situation assessment, planning, implementing decisions and controlling the effects of implementation on the incident (disaster).

Source: ISO 22320

Communication between first Responders

The process of communication, information sharing and diffusion between professional responders.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Community building

Practices directed toward the creation or enhancement of community among individuals within a regional area (such as a neighbourhood) or with a common interest.

Source: D934.16 Community engagement tool

Community of practice

An (online) platform that facilitates and fosters cooperation and synergies among Crisis Management professionals. A broad variety of stakeholders including practitioners, researchers, industry representatives and policy makers can exchange knowledge and best practices and initiate cooperation on Crisis Management topics.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Community Resilience

The sustained ability of a community to utilize available resources to respond to, withstand, recover from and adapt to adverse situations.

Source: D934.17 Measuring resilience and dashboard

Competence

Demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results.

Source: ISO 22300

Competence framework

Structure that defines the competence (5.3) of people within an organisation.

Source: ISO 30400:2016(en) Human resource management — Vocabulary

Content management systems (CMS)

CMS is an application (more likely web-based), that provides capabilities for multiple users with different permission levels to manage (all or a section of) content, data or information of a website project, or internet/ intranet application. Managing content refers to creating, editing, archiving, publishing; collaborating on, reporting, distributing website content, data and information.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Crisis

Situation  with  high  level  of  uncertainty  that  disrupts  the  core  activities  and/or  credibility  of  an organization (2.2.9) and requires urgent action.

Source: ISO22300

Crisis management

Holistic management (3.135) process (3.180) that identifies potential impacts (3.107) that threaten an organization (3.158) and provides a framework for building resilience (3.192), with the capability for an effective response that safeguards the interests of the organization’s key interested parties (3.124), reputation, brand and value creating activities (3.1), as well as effectively restoring operational capabilities. Note 1 to entry: Crisis management also involves the management of preparedness (3.172), mitigation (3.146) response, and continuity (3.49) or recovery (3.187) in the event of an incident (3.111), as well as management of the overall programme through training (3.265), rehearsals and reviews (3.197) to ensure the preparedness, response and continuity y plans stay current and up-to-date.

Source: ISO 22300 

Crisis management function

Crisis management functions aim at achieving effects, e.g. coordination, a direction of effort, shared awareness, etc., in a crisis management system-of-systems. The “function” focuses on what is to be achieved, not how or by whom. Several systems, tools, building blocks, etc. may individually or in concert deliver a given function and, conversely, may support several different functions.

Crisis management functions are grouped in three functional areas: operational (protection, response, recovery), preparatory (mitigation, capability development, strategic adaptiveness) and common (security management, logistics, C3, comms & Info management).

Source: Initial DRIVER+ definition

 

Crisis Management professionals

Persons with relevant knowledge or ability needed to effectively and timely  respond to a crisis to in order to minimize damage to society.

Source: D934.17 Measuring resilience and dashboard

Data, Personal

Information relating to an identified or identifiable individual that is recorded in any form, including electronically or on paper.

Source: ISO/IEC TR 24714-1:2008(en) Information technology — Biometrics — Jurisdictional and societal considerations for commercial applications — Part 1: General guidance, 2.9

Data, Sensitive

Data (3.1.1.15) with potentially harmful effects in the event of disclosure (3.13.5.03) or misuse.

Source: ISO 5127:2017(en) Information and documentation — Foundation and vocabulary, 3.1.10.16

Data Protection Approval

Procedure of applying to the national or local Data Protection Authority to report about the collection, storage and/or analysis of personal data for a specific task. Whether reporting the activity is enough or actual approval is granted depends on the respective data protection authority. The task leader is generally the legal owner of this procedure.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Disaster

Situation where widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses have occurred which exceeded the ability of the affected organisation, community or society to respond and recover using its own resources.

Source: ISO 22300:2012(en) Societal security — Terminology, 2.4.5 [addition in DRAFT 2017]

Disaster risk reduction

Disaster  risk  reduction  is  the  policy  objective  aimed  at  preventing  new  and  reducing  existing disaster risk and managing residual risk, all of which contributes to strengthening resilience.

Source: UNISDR: Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction: A Technical Review. August 2015 p14

Domain / AREA

Broad operational categories in which similar needs are consistently identified.

Source: Project Responder 5 

Dry Run 1

First rehearsal of a Trial, focusing on the technical integration of solutions, reference implementation of the Test-bed, and scenario validation; it also serves as a readiness review to approve the maturity of technical solutions.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

DRy Run 2

Full scale rehearsal of a Trial without external end-users participation, aimed at detection of technical issues and last second fine-tuning; Dry Run 2 is organised as a complete mirror of the Trial.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Emergency

Sudden, urgent, usually unexpected occurrence or event (3.82) requiring immediate action.
Note 1 to entry: An emergency is usually a disruption (3.70) or condition that can often be anticipated or prepared for, but seldom exactly foreseen.

Soucre: ISO 22300 

Emergency Management

The organization and management of resources and responsibilities for addressing all aspects of emergencies and effectively respond to a hazardous event or a disaster.

Source: UNISDR: Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction: A Technical Review. August 2015 p16

End-users

Individual person who ultimately benefits from the outcomes of the system.

Source: ISO/IEC 25010:2011(en) Systems and software engineering — Systems and software Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE) — System and software quality models, 4.4.3

Evaluation

Process of estimating the effectiveness (3.1.3.03), efficiency (3.1.3.04), utility and relevance of a service (3.1.1.59) or facility.

Source: ISO 5127:2017(en) Information and documentation — Foundation and vocabulary, 3.1.3.02

Exercice

Process (3.180) to train for, assess, practise and improve performance (3.167) in an organization (3.158)
Note 1 to entry: Exercises can be used for validating policies, plans, procedures (3.179), training (3.265), equipment, and inter-organizational agreements; clarifying and training personnel (3.169) in roles and responsibilities; improving inter­organizational coordination (3.52) and communications; identifying gaps in resources (3.193); improving individual performance and identifying opportunities for improvement; and a controlled opportunity to practise improvisation.
Note 2 to entry: See also test (3.257).

Source: ISO 22300 

Experiment

Purposive investigation of a system through selective adjustment of controllable conditions and allocation of resources.

Source: ISO/TR 13195:2015(en) Selected illustrations of response surface method — Central composite design, 2.1

Experiment Design

Systematic methodology for collecting information to guide improvement of any process.

Source: ISO 13053-2:2011(en) Quantitative methods in process improvement — Six Sigma — Part 2: Tools and techniques, 2.12 composite design, 2.1

Experimentation campaign

A set of experiments orchestrated around a specific set of issues.

Source: Albert and Hayes 2002

GAP

Gaps between the existing capabilities of responders and what was actually needed for effective and timely response.

Source: Project Responder 5

Glossary

Document (3.1.1.38) or part of a document which contains a selected list (3.4.7.25) of words (1)   (3.1.5.18) from one or a few given texts (3.2.1.05) which are deemed to require punctiform explanation but which explanations do not necessarily follow a uniform pattern.

Source: ISO 5127:2017(en) Information technology — Modelling Languages — Part 2: Syntax and Semantics for IDEF1X97 (IDEFobject), 3.5.5.04

Guidance methodology

A structured approach from designing a Trial to evaluating the outcomes and identifying lessons learned.

Source: Initial DRIVER+ definition

Guidance tool

Gaps between the existing capabilities of responders and what was actually needed for effective and timely response.

Source: Project Responder 5

High-level decision-makers

See: strategic decision makers

Innovation

Implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, new marketing method, or new organizational method in business practices, workplace organization or external relations.

Source: ISO 37500:2014(en) Guidance on outsourcing, 3.6 new or changed object (3.6.1) realizing or redistributing value

Interoperability

The ability of diverse systems and organisations to work together, i.e. to interoperate.

Source: ISO 22397

Legacy Systems

(Crisis management) system currently in operational use.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Lessons Learned

[lessons learning: process of distributing the problem information to the whole project and organization as well as other related projects and organizations, warning if similar failure modes or mechanism issues exist and taking preventive actions]

Source: [ISO 18238:2015(en) Space systems — Closed loop problem solving management, 3.3]

Measurement

Process (3.180) to determine a value

Source: ISO 9000:2015, 3.11.4, modified — Notes 1 and 2 to entry have been deleted

Mitigation

Measures taken to prevent, limit and reduce impact of the negative consequences (2.1.9) of incidents, emergencies and disasters; [limitation of any negative consequence (3.46) of a particular incident (3.111) – DRAFT 2017].

Source: ISO 22300 

Need

Prerequisite identified as necessary to achieve an intended outcome, implied or stated.

Source: ISO/TR 21245-1:2016(en) Railway applications — Rail project planning process — Part 1: Stakeholders and their needs/interests, 3.6

Observation

Method of data collection in which the situation of interest is watched and the relevant facts, actions and behaviours are recorded  [observer participant (3.163) who witnesses the exercise (3.83) while remaining separate from exercise activities].

Source: ISO 16439:2014(en) Information and documentation — Methods and procedures for assessing the impact of libraries, 3.41; [ISO22300 (DRAFT 2017) 18]

Observer

Exercise participant who watches selected segments as they unfold while remaining separate from role player activities [DRAFT 22300: 2017– observer participant (3.163) who witnesses the exercise (3.83) while remaining separate from exercise activities.
Note 1 to entry: Observers may be part of the evaluation (3.81) process (3.180).]

Source: ISO 22300

Operator

(human) operator : Person engaged in task performance, considered as a monitoring, controlling or directing element in a system or process capable of a dynamic response to system inputs and disturbances.

Source: ISO 9996:1996(en) Mechanical vibration and shock — Disturbance to human activity and performance — Classification, 3.5

Organisation

Person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives.
Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to, sole trader, company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private.
[Note 2 to entry: For organizations with more than one operating unit, a single operating unit can be defined as an organization.]

Source: ISO 22300 

Portfolio of Solutions

A database driven web site that documents the available Crisis Management solutions. The PoS includes information on the experiences with a solution (i.e. results and outcomes of Trials), the needs it addresses, the type of practitioner organisations that have used it, the regulatory conditions that apply, societal impact consideration, a glossary, and the design of the Trials.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Practitioners

See: End users

Preparedness

The knowledge and capacities developed by governments, professional response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from the impacts of likely, imminent or current disasters.

Source: UNISDR: Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction: A Technical Review. August 2015, p24

Prevention

Measures that enable an organization (3.158) to avoid, preclude or limit the impact (3.107) of an undesirable event (3.268) or potential disruption (3.70).

Source: ISO 22300 

Public

[general public: people having all possible variations of user characteristics, usually within a particular geographical area]

Source: [ISO 20282-1:2006(en) Ease of operation of everyday products — Part 1: Design requirements for context of use and user characteristics, 3.10]

recovery

Decisions and actions aimed at restoring or improving livelihoods, health, as well as economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets, systems and activities, of a disaster-affected community or society, aligning with the principles of sustainable development, including build back better to avoid or reduce future disaster risk.

Source: UNISDR: Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction: A Technical Review. August 2015, p25

Research Ethics

The ethics of the planning, conduct, and reporting of research; this pertains in particular to rules and guidelines for the participation and protection of individuals taking part in the research activities.

Source: D91.3 Ethical procedures, risks and safeguards

Resilience

The   ability   of   a   system,   community   or   society   exposed   to   hazards   to   resist,   absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions.

Source: UNISDR: Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction: A Technical Review. August 2015, p26

response

Actions taken during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected.

Source: UNISDR: Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction: A Technical Review. August 2015, p27

risk

Effect of uncertainty on objectives.

Source: ISO 31000

risk analysis

Process to comprehend the nature of risk and to determine the level of risk.

Source: ISO 31000

Scenario

Pre-planned storyline that drives an exercise; the stimuli used to achieve exercise objectives [pre-planned storyline that drives an exercise (3.83), as well as the stimuli used to achieve exercise project performance (3.167) objectives (3.153)].

Source: ISO 22300 

Skill

Ability (2.1) to perform a task or activity with a specific intended outcome acquired through education, training (2.77), experience or other means.

Source: ISO/IEC TS 17027:2014(en) Conformity assessment — Vocabulary related to competence of persons used for certification of persons, 2.74

Societal impact

Dimension of crisis management that refers to its unintended positive or negative impacts on different societal groups or society as a whole, as well as on its core values and societal principles as captured for example in fundamental rights, constitutional laws, but also in public debate.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Societal impact assessment

The process of identifying, analysing and managing intended and unintended (positive or negative) societal consequences.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Societal resilience

Social entities and their abilities to tolerate, absorb, cope with and adjust to environmental and social threats of various kinds.

Source: D934.16 Community engagement tool

Societal security

Protection of society from, and response to, incidents, emergencies and disasters caused by intentional and unintentional human acts, natural hazards, and technical failures.

Source: ISO 22300

Strategic decision maker

The individual who has the power and is tasked to take a strategic decision. These are elected officials, and high ranking personnel in response organizations / relevant authorities / agencies tasked with the response to the crisis.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

System function

Broad category of activity performed by a system.

Source: ISO 6385:2016(en) Ergonomics principles in the design of work systems, 2.21

Strategic decision maker

The individual who has the power and is tasked to take a strategic decision. These are elected officials, and high ranking personnel in response organizations / relevant authorities / agencies tasked with the response to the crisis.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Terminology

Set of terms representing a system of concepts within a specified domain.

Source: ISO/TS 17117:2002(en), 3.1

Test-bed

The software tools, middleware and methodology to systematically conduct Trials and evaluate solutions within an appropriate environment. An “appropriate environment” is a testing environment (life and/or virtual) where the trialling of solutions is carried out using a structured, all-encompassing and mutual learning approach. The Test-bed can enable existing facilities to connect and exchange data, providing a pan-European arena of virtually connected facilities and crisis labs where users, providers, researchers, policy makers and citizens jointly and iteratively can progress on new approaches or solutions to emerging needs.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Training

Activities designed to facilitate the learning and development of knowledge, skills, and abilities, and to improve the performance of specific tasks or roles.

Source: ISO 22300 

TRIAL

An activity for systematically finding and testing valuable solutions for current and emerging needs in such a way that practitioners can do this in a pragmatic yet systematic way.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

TRIAL action Plan (TAP)

The main Trial planning document, facilitating collaborative planning and supporting combined execution. It covers all areas related to the Trial organization and will be used to record efforts, circulate decisions and assess progress.

Source: initial DRIVER+ definition

Volunteer

[SV [spontaneous volunteer]
Individual who is not affiliated with an existing incident response organization or voluntary organization but who, without extensive preplanning, offers support to the response to, and recovery from, an incident]

Source: ISO 22319:2017(en) Security and resilience — Community resilience — Guidelines for planning the involvement of spontaneous volunteers, 3.1

The rationale behind the Terminology

Mutual understanding of practitioners and other key actors involved in international crisis and disaster management turned out to be a key challenge. Barriers to understanding due to different cultural, organisational and educational background were identified to be main challenges of communication and information exchange of several activities such as border crossing cooperation.

In this light, the FP7 project DRIVER+ decided to establish an English project terminology of key terms and associated definitions in order to enhance a common understanding within the project team and to contribute to a shared understanding within Europe. For this purpose, a Terminology Working Group (TWG) was established ensuring the continuous update of the living project terminology. The TWG defined the basis version of the terminology as well as the process of continuous evolution of the DRIVER+ terminology.

The TWG took the terms and definitions of the already existing terminology from the initial project phase as basis. The first step to establish the basis version was to identify if all terms of this initial list are still relevant for the current project context. Several terms were eliminated because they were not considered relevant anymore. Then it was controlled if:

  1. A definition from the UNISDR 2015 terminology could be identified for any of the terms of the initial DRIVER+ list – in case such a definition was found, the definition from UNISDR 2015 was taken for the DRIVER+ terminology.
  2. The second step was to check the definitions of ISO 22300 – in case of availability the definition from ISO 22300 was chosen for the DRIVER+ terminology.
  3. For the other terms a search in the ISO database was executed, adequate definitions were selected and introduced.

After execution of these three steps the consolidated initial status of the terminology was reached.

Next, a process of continuous update of the terminology was set up. In almost all cases when an update is requested, this results from an input of a DRIVER+ partner or a member of the TWG. The TWG forwards the request to the Project Coordination Team (PCT) and in case of acceptance of the request the TWG takes the following actions:

  1. The TWG examines if an adequate definition can be found in UNISDR 2015, ISO 22300 2018 and the ISO database.
  2. If one or more adequate definitions are found in these sources, all definitions are proposed to the PCT together with a recommendation for a selection.
  3. If no adequate definition is found, other already available sources are examined without giving any ranking to the PCT in case of identification of adequate definitions. These sources are:
    1. SDSIE 2017: Service de défense, de sécurité et d’intelligence économique, Crisis & crisis management terminology translation
    2. IFRC 1991: Code of conduct – International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies   
    3. ICRC 2013: Professional standards for Protection Work  
    4. HM Government 2013: Emergency Response and Recovery Non statutory guidance accompanying the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 

In case all examined sources do not provide any or adequate definitions, additional sources can be examined or self-defined definitions can be taken.

In general, recognized and well accepted definitions are given priority compared to self-defined DRIVER+ definitions. However, sometimes available definitions are suited for the DRIVER+ purposes, but an additional comment to the definition is helpful in order to make the DRIVER+ context more specific. This can be done by adding a so called DRIVER+ note in addition to the definition.

On this basis the DRIVER+ terminology is continuously updated.