Standardisation in DRIVER+
The DRIVER+ project will extensively promote its results through various standardisation activities. The activities are targeted to raise awareness within the DRIVER+ project about existing standards and standardisation activities in the field of crisis management and to identify standardisation needs of the project. The project has already identified some relevant standards. These standards reflect the state-of-the-art and build the basis for future standardisation ideas. These ideas are presented below. A survey on the ideas was sent out in December 2018. An assessment of the feedback received was made. The results are presented below.
What is a standard?
developed by experts, and
approved by a recognized body.
Standards provide rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, reflecting the state-of-the-art. They are based on the consolidated results of science, technology and experience with the aim of promoting the optimum community benefits.
Standardisation in Crisis Management
Standardisation in the area of crisis management is conducted on national (AFNOR, ANSI, BSI, DIN, NEN, SA, …), European (CEN, CENELEC, ETSI) and international (ISO, IEC, ITU) levels in various technical committees (TC) and their working groups. In those working groups experts from the associated field develop the standards content, while members of the standardisation bodies manage their discussion and results. The most related topics to DRIVER+ project are discussed on international level in ISO/TC 292 – Security and resilience and on European level in CEN/TC 391 – Social and Citizen Security.
How can standardisation support research projects?
A new developed method (such as the Trial Guidance Methodology) an innovative product (such as the Test-bed infrastructure) or the advancement of a process (such as the Social Impact Assessment Framework) can be the outcomes and results of a research project.
But what happens with these results after the conclusion of the project? How does the market or the industry get to know about these results?
One possible answer is: via standards.
A research project such as DRIVER+ can provide its ideas and results as first suggestion for a potential standard document. Therefore it has three possibilities
Contribution to ongoing standardisation activities: Before a final approval every standard is published in a draft version. In this stage a research project can comment on the draft standard. Every comment must be taken into account by the standard developer.
Submission of a proposal for a new standardisation work: The research project submits a completed form for a new standardisation work to a standardisation body. As European research project in the area of crisis management, DRIVER+ would most likely hand in such a form to CEN.
Development of a CEN Workshop Agreement: A CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA) is a document developed by experts, who do not have to be member of a technical committee and published by CEN with a maximum lifetime of six years. It is open to everyone interested in participating in the development of the document and needs to be approved only by the workshop member. It is a pre-standard and aims to be used as input for formal standards. Anyway, it may not conflict with European standards. More information regarding the development process can be found on the CEN website. A CWA developed in a project funded by the EU can be publicly available and free of charge. This makes a CWA a perfect tool for dissemination and exploitation.
DRIVER+ Liaison with CEN/Technical Committee 391
DRIVER+ is cooperating with CEN/TC 391 – Social and Citizen Security.
This liaison helps to build cooperation between research projects and standardisation. Its aim is to transfer results of research projects into standards. DRIVER+, being a research project, is therefore entitled to participate in CEN/TC 391, which means that the possibility exists to:
- propose technical documents with a view of their possible conversion into CEN deliverables, through the regular consensus and approval process.
- introduce preparatory work as a support to ongoing standardisation activities.
- submit technical contributions to the CEN/TC 391 meetings.
- formulate advice on current and future standards programmes.
For further information consult, CEN-CENELEC Guide 25.
DRIVER+ proposals for standards
Which idea will be followed as standardisation activity in DRIVER+?
During a standardisation potential workshop, the project partners identified seven ideas with a potential for standardisation. Which idea will be followed as a standardisation activity of DRIVER+ and what kind of standardisation document will result, depended on an assessment and the feedback of the standardisation commitees. A survey was sent out end of 2018. An assessment of the feedback was made and the following 3 ideas below were ranked as most important for the DRIVER+ project. The plan is to translate these ideas into a concrete CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA) by the end of the project.
Requirements on information exchange across borders and organisations
DRIVER+ partners identified that the communication between different organisation, regions and countries – with their specific processes and tools – as a major challenge in crisis management. But efficient communication and access to critical information is a key requirement for the operations of public safety and security services in disasters. Several examples demonstrate the relevance of adequate information exchange, e.g. Altay & Labonte 2014 for the management of the devastating earthquake in Haiti or Tso & McEntire 2011 related to the Chi-Chi earthquake in 1999. Information exchange remains a key factor in present time, as shown by Wolbers & Boersma 2013 or Smith 2012.
The DRIVER+ partners have therefore proposed standardising a process to implement interoperability and hence formulate requirements on this process, whilst also looking at the technical sides of communication – the communication of different tools with each other via a common information space. The overall goal is to ensure syntactical as well as semantic interoperability in crisis situations.
TrIAl Guidance Methodology
What is the best way to assess Crisis Management solutions in such a way that they meet the end-users expectations? This is one of the challenges DRIVER+ project is taking on. Therefore the project partners are developing a methodology to guide practitioners to be able to trial innovative solutions. This methodology is a structured approach to trial and evaluate crisis management solutions in a very practical way. A solution in this case is seen as a socio-technical entity: a tool, software, training, a procedure or a combination of these. They can be at very different Technology Readiness Levels (TRL), so the trial can either focus mostly on guiding the development or on introducing innovation to the end-user.
The Trial Guidance Methodology (TGM) is conceived for high-level crisis managers, as it supportsthe investigation of innovations, in terms of new capabilities leading to improved crisis management operations. It focuses on a step-by-step approach to carry out Trials in a pragmatic yet sound and ethical way in three main phases:
- The preparation phase, which consists of the iterative and co-creative DRIVER+ six-step approach (i.e., identify the Trial objective, formulate research questions, formulate data collection plan, formulate evaluation techniques and metrics, formulate the scenario and select solutions).
- The execution phase, which consists of two Dry Runs and the actual execution of the Trial. The Dry Runs are the rehearsal to be carried out before the Trials to check both technical and methodological issues.
- The evaluation phase, which covers the analysis of the Trial and also includes communication strategies.
The aim of the TGM is to ensure an objective assessment, which enables the end-user to find the right solution that is really able to help with the challenges being faced, by assesing it in a scenario that is as realistic as possible. The solution could be in the development phase or in the procurement process – depending on the TRL and the end-users interest. The idea behind this is to bring innovation to the end-user – more quickly and more effective than nowadays.
Building a Common Simulation Environment
How to prepare for a crisis situation? This is one of the questions crisis managers are facing every day. For this preparation, they train and test different response procedures, decision making and (creative) problem solving, together with using operational systems and innovative crisis management solutions. Many of those solutions can be trained with and tested in a virtual reality, by using a simulated crisis situation instead of a physically staged or even real incident. The DRIVER+ Test-bed Infrastructure provides a data exchange interface for multiple systems to connect to (i.e. operational crisis management systems and simulators providing a virtual crisis) via standardised connections.
To produce a suitable virtual crisis, one could use different simulations, benefitting from the advantages of multiple simulators. A Test-bed Infrastructure for example might consist of one simulator calculating and showing the flow of water during a flood, another simulator that provides critical information (e.g. capacity, reachability) of hospitals, police stations, power stations etc, and a third simulator imitating relevant resources moving to and from incident sites. These three simulators need to work together using one shared time and coordination system and exchange information, as for example the water levels may influence the traffic flow, to present the crisis managers a consistent common simulation space.
DRIVER+ partners would like to standardise how these simulators work together, which information they exchange and what the technical basis of their interaction looks like. This standardisation would ease the cooperation between different simulators and therefore facilitate the quick creation of a common virtual training/test environment, which comes closer to its real-world equivalent. These standardised connectors are designed to be easy to implement, taking into account budget availability of civil emergency services and that some simulators are not designed to be interoperable by design (although some military simulators are interoperable by design). Being able to connect different simulators without major integration efforts, improves the capability development process, positively contributes to the trialling of new and innovative solutions and improves the preparatory work especially for large-scale exercises.
Further information regarding the test-bed implementation can be found here.
The Process of developing a CWA
As mentioned above DRIVER+ seeks to translate the three standardisation ideas into a concrete CWA (CEN Workshop Agreement).
The process of developing a CWA is explained here below.
Formal initiation of the standardization project
Set up project plan (incl. scope, objective, schedule); to be accepted by CEN
1st Comment phase
Project plan on CEN website for at least 30 days for comments of general public
Defining rules, designating chair person, secretariat, presentation of first ideas/draft
Minimum 30 days
In one/several meeting(s) development of draft version manuscript; electronic sessions possible
2nd comment phase (optional)
Manuscript provided online on CEN website for public comments.
Comments discussed, either integrated or declined with reasons until final consensus reached.
CWA distributed via CCMC to all national members for potential publication